Water is an essential part of human survival. It has no limitation on its usage. Water contains minerals that are safe for drinking. Without water in our body, toxins will not be flushed away and would also cause dehydration. It is indispensable for cooking since it serves as a medium for steaming and boiling. Through the food and water we intake, our body is naturally eliminating metabolic waste through the process of excretion. These wastes are flushed down the sewer pipe. There are a number of complex issues related to water pollution, such as what is the leading cause of water pollution in the united states or how people in everyday life can affect the conservation of nature. Other waste such as soap residue and other cleaning components are washed down the pipe through the sewage treatment. However, this may cause pollution if not treated well. One factor that contributes to water contamination is poor infrastructures in the Philippines. It may seem irrelevant to the problem but as people start to realize that their wastes end up somewhere in the rivers, especially those who are residing near waterways area. Somehow it may affect negatively.
Wastewater Management To Mitigate Water Pollution
According to Evelyn Macairan(2019), 50% of Metro Manila waterways were occupied by informal settlers and other structures. In this case, it would be hard for the MMDA to implement clean-up activities due to obstructions. While any specific human activity can be blamed for polluting water, it all stems from the fact that living produces waste. It’s a fundamental aspect of life. Earth has a lot of living organisms, and as such they produce a lot of waste. Even without the Industrial Revolution, we still would have needed to put our excrement somewhere. It can be on farms, and it would still pollute the water supply through groundwater. In its entirety, however, the main human activity that causes water pollution is putting waste in water. This study aims to focus on how they manage wastewater treatment and for the readers to be aware of such human activities that have the potential to pollute water.
Causes of Water Pollution
Humans produce waste, and that is a fact, although Nathanson (2020) defines personal biological waste as domestic sewage, and claims it as a cause of water pollution. Another factor is that humans use household materials to keep their place sanitary. This product is what we know as cleaning agents yet harmful. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (n.d.) wrote that man-made chemicals that can contaminate water include bleach, various kinds of salts, pesticides, metals, and drugs. According to Aldag (2020), the three main types of toxic waste are chemical, radioactive, and medical. Anything that makes explosive, toxic for organic life, poisonous, carcinogenic, mutagenic – or capable of causing changes to DNA – and teratogenic – or capable of causing malformations – by-products are considered chemical waste. Anything that has to do with ionising radiation is considered radioactive waste. Finally, any tool that has been through a medical operation is considered medical waste.
In order to find out what are the types of water pollution, it is necessary to analyze the problem of water using a real example. The very large delta system of the Banyuasin and Musi Rivers and numerous smaller rivers and mangrove creeks. The area comprises some of the most extensive mangrove forests in Sumatra, with intact transitions to freshwater and peat swamp forests. There are vast areas of intertidal mudflats along the coast, some of which are more than one km wide at lowest low tide. The area is under heavy pressure from reclamation activities, and a large part of the swamp forest has already been reclaimed. The peninsula between the Sembilang and Banyuasin Rivers is one of the most important areas for waterfowl in Indonesia, with thousands of large waterbirds and tens of thousands of migratory shorebirds. The many small villages built on poles on the coastal mudflats are very characteristic of this region. There are also a few larger coastal villages. The long term average coastal accretion rate is estimated at about lOOm per year. The soil consists of unripe clays (entisols) and peat; the clays often consist of potential acid sulphate soils. The tidal amplitude is about 2.0-2.5m.
Climatic conditions of the Region
Humid tropical climate, with an average annual rainfall of 2,300 mm. The region is influenced by the northwest monsoon from November to February.
Mangrove forests. More than 30 species of mangrove are known to occur; the main species are Rhizophora mucronata, R. apiculata, Avicennia alba, A. marina, Sonneratia alba, S. acida, Ceriops tagal, C. candoleana and Xylocarpus spp. There are also some extensive swamps of Nypa fruticans. Inland, the mangroves and nipa swamps give way to freshwater swamp forests, peat swamp forests and grassy marshes where the forest has been burned or logged.
Conservation measures proposed
Silvius (1986) has proposed that the area between the Sembilang River and Banyuasin River (the Banyuasin Peninsula) be designated as a Nature Reserve. The administrative procedure to designate the area as reserve was initiated in late 1986. The reserve would cover an area of about 70,000 ha.
Economic and social values
The mangrove forest is extremely important for the local fishing industry which thrives largely on the shrimps and prawns which use the mangrove as nursery and breeding areas. The fishery industry is rapidly increasing in the area. The fishing villages are constructed mainly of timber taken from the mangrove forest and freshwater swamp forest. Tree species commonly used in the construction include Meranti (Shorea), Nibung (Oncosperma) and Bakau (Rhizophora). The mudflats may have a high potential for the cockle industry.
The mangrove forests are important breeding and nursery grounds for many species of marine fishes, prawns and shrimps. The area is one of the most important sites for waterfowl in Indonesia. Eighteen species of large waterbirds and 20 species of migratory shorebirds have been recorded. The area is presumed to contain the largest breeding colony of the Milky Stork Mycteria cinerea in the world. it is the only area in southeast Asia with a population of Spot-billed Pelicans Pelecanus philippensis; an immature observed in 1986 suggests that the birds are breeding in the area. It has the highest population of Lesser Adjutants Leptoptilos javanicus known in Indonesia. The endangered White-winged Wood-Duck Cairina scutulata occurs in the swamp forests behind the mangroves. The Grey Heron Ardea cinerea is known to breed in the area; the Great Egret Egretta alba probably breeds along with several other large waterbirds such as the Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus. Because of the difficulties of access, much of the area is still relatively untouched. A few fishermen collected some eggs and young of large waterbirds in 1982-1984, but the main breeding colonies of herons, egrets, storks and ibises have not as yet been located by biologists.
Denchak (2018) describes the effect of water pollution in its most concise form: it kills. To elaborate, it kills humans as it spreads pathogens, which cause sickness, which can kill. They wrote that water pollution alone had caused 1.8 million deaths in 2015. It can also kill the environment by encouraging the growth of algae in water, which then grow explosively, which then reduces oxygen in the water, which kills off everything that lives in that water, thereby disrupting the local ecosystem and driving off every living being that depended on that water, which can then kill them. Repeat ad infinitum. Wastewater Management in the Philippines Filipinos are accustomed to do household chores. Cleaning requires a lot of materials, primarily water. Cleaning agents such as detergent for washing clothes, soap for bathing, and disinfectants are also necessary. A lot of up-to-date data can also be obtained from educational resources about water pollution essays and also from the official libraries of the US Institutes of Wildlife and Ecology Research.All of these are mixed with water to neutralize its substance. It may seem very safe for us, however, it may cause harm to the environment as it contains chemicals. In modern science, they often study what are the different types of water pollution, but the pollution problem is getting more and more complicated. And their study also becomes more complicated. The moment we buy these products, we would never notice how much it will cost damage to the environment no matter how much we need it. According to Carmelita L.(2017), we consumed 80& of water for various usage. There should be a process of filtering wastewater as it may potentially reach our seas, rivers, and lakes. Carmelita realized that the water their household uses for doing the laundry, washing dishes, taking baths, and washing the car would have to go somewhere. It is stated in the Philippine Clean Water act that households are mandated to have septic tanks connected to the sewerage. This sewerage network is directly connected to the facilities responsible for treating sewage. This management is incorporated with the Maynilad Water Services. They ensure proper wastewater management by offering sewerage services and even septic tank cleaning services for sanitation. They also provide services in unsewered areas so that households can have their septic tanks desludged every 5 to 7 years. Other methods for Water Purification Wastewater has to be neutralized through the process of Neutralization to balance its pH level (5.8- 8.6)so that it can be discharged without causing negative impact. Aeration is a method used to increase dissolved oxygen by contacting air with water. There are two ways to remove organic materials. One is by using a blower to feed air to in-water aeration devices. Another is to use mechanical agitation equipment to feed air. If the air bubbles fed are finer, it would efficiently dissolve into water. Another method is Aerobic Filter Bed. The system comprises several millimeter thick filter materials built in a tank. Wastewater flows from above. Aerobic microorganisms that cling to the surface of the filtering materials decompose organic materials and capture suspended particles. Air is fed from the bottom of the filter bed to supply oxygen that is required for the decomposition.
There is an urgent need to put awareness on this problem. These chemicals we use for cleaning can adversely contribute to water contamination. The only thing we could do is to lessen the use of these products or only if necessary. Water is vital for our lifestyle, we should be responsible enough to properly drain water waste by not disposing of inorganic materials such as plastic which could clog our sinks and septic tanks. This ma
Danielson & Skov (1986 & 1987); Hardjowigeno & Situmorang (1987); Karpowica (1985); Silvius (1986); Silvius et al. (1986); Sukardjo (1979); Sukardjo et al. (1984).